Instructor: Ed Quigley
Free Subscription: www.informationweek.com
Alvin and Heidi Toffler's Waves
Each of these waves has displaced workers, used new tools, and re-directed society.
- Hunter Gatherers
- 1st Wave: Agriculture. (settled, agrarian, generalist)
- 2nd Wave: Industrial Revolution (urban, specialist, capitalist)
- 3rd Wave: Information Economy (digital, faster)
Evolution of tools:
- hunting tools, weapons, fire, drums
- Amplifying Animal Force: Wheel and Axle, Plane, Pulley, Lever
- Natural Energy Multiplying Animal Force (windmills, water wheels)
- First info tools: printing press, clocks
- Artificial (def) Energy Multiplying Animal Force: Steam Engines, Textile Mills
- Info Machines to Control powerful/complex systems that no one human can comprehend (ICBM defense,
nuke power plants, financial markets
- Info Machines as Extensions of our Senses/sensors (MRI, radar, satellites)
Evolution of organizations:
- 1945-98. Military/GM Org-Chart to hyper-org
- of information, 1945-98. Secret-Proprietary / Open-Books-Distributed.
- of computers, 1950-98. Monolithic-Isolated to Distributed-Personal.
Evolution of Hardware
- wartime trajectory calculations (computing)
- hard-wired, application specific
- Isolated, batch processing, programmable, storage
- First networks: mainframes and dumb terminals
- ARPA net
- Hobbyists: Zenith, Sinclair, TI, Tandy.
- Business: IBM made PC's, MS made DOS
- Artists: Apples
- Connected PC's to mainframes instead of dumb terminals
and developed CSA (client server architecture) vice sneaker networks
- Modems (def) and Networks paved way for Communications
evolution of software
- OS/App Distinction
- Fortran, Basic
- Software/Hardware conflicts leads to Windows: resolve issues by providing a standard.
Glommed Apple GUI. Ver: 3.0, 3.1, 3.11
- Win innovations: Apple knockoff, ClipBoard, Sound. Metaphor: Desktop WP/Word, Excel.
- Win95: PnP Intro (Plug and Play), 32-bit words, no .sys or .bat work; claims to be an OS.
- Visual Basic: lets people write Win applications
- Win95B in 1997: many bugs fixed (not all)
- Win98: USB (Univ. Serial Bus), true PnP. Metaphor: Browser.
Evolution of Internet, 1985-98.
- heritage: ArpaNet
- serendipity: Profs sending messages (Eureka! E-Mail!)
- parts of the Net:
- W3C / World Wide Web Consortium
- SGML / HTML / WWW takes the Internet Public
- Browser Wars (Mosaic, Netscape, IE, etc.)
- Intranet, Extranet, EDI.
- Positives: Platform Independence, Cheap, Low Entry Barriers
- Negatives: The 40% problem, the BS problem, privacy, kids
- Change in software distribution: downloads, 30 day trials, CD-Rom
- Change: E-mail accessibility
- Web Caveats:
- Scoundrels Abound!
- Web Posting=The Front Page
- Verify Everything
Computer Systems Are Used For:
- C^3: command, control, communication (the functions of business).
- Disintermediation (Sales and Distribution without middlemen)
- Reduction of plant, capital, time, people (FedEx: mass)
- Fast, Cheap Communication
- Data Mining, Data Marts, Data Warehousing
- The Network is the Company
Some questions to ask regarding technologies and innovation:
- What are ALL the costs (purchase, training, maintenance, upgrade)
- What are the benefits?
- What are the liabilities?
- Does this move a crucial process into the machine?
- Is my machine (and support) strong enough to bet the firm?
- What could go wrong?
- How long will this Solution last?
- When will this Solution become a problem? Y2K
- Who are these people selling this? Will they be here?
- What technology is this based on? What is the posture of the technology?
- Replacing people with systems (see Luddites)
- IS schism: of legacy systems / business process innovation
- Internet/Intranet/Extranet and EDI
- pace of change
- interdependence (and integrity) of vital systems
Examples of Companies using IT for competitive advantage:
New Required Skills:
- inter-disciplinary outlook
- effective persuasive communication
- business process orientation
Opinion: What Drives Technology?
- Money (greed)
- Pornography (www and vcr's)
- Answer either one of the following two questions.
- Responses should be typed or computer-printed.
- Submissions should begin with a cover page.
- The cover page includes your name, the date, and the assignment number.
- Begin your submission on the following page.
- Starting after the cover sheet, every page should have your last name and the page number in the upper-right hand corner.
- Staple the pages together. No binders. No paper clips. No excuses.
Describe a business process that you are familiar with (internal or external) that
you can describe as a Second-Wave process that could be more efficient as a Third-Wave process.
Who would be the winners and losers of this change?
Describe a process that you are familiar with (internal or external) that would
be improved through disintermediation. (Alternatively, describe a process that you
have observed before and after disintermediation.) What is/was the situation? What is/were
the expected benefits? Was the change successful? Were the benefits realized? Or, do you
think it will be successful, do you think the benefits will be realized?